Baumann, M., Carroll, F.I., Dersch, C.M., Partilla, J.S., Rothman, R.B., Romero, D., & Rice, K. (2001). Its absorption and excretion may be pH dependent. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. Lazăr Edeleano: Über einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure. ; Changing speed. [14] Among European Union (EU) member states, 1.2 million young adults used illicit amphetamine or methamphetamine in 2013. Het gebruik is geestelijk verslavend. Speed is classed as a ‘stimulant’ because it speeds up the messages going to and from your brain. p. 329. 1. a white crystalline powder used as a central nervous system stimulant. In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benz… Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD |, Bowyer JF, Hanig JP (November 2014). Methamphetamine has two isomers, "left-handed" and "right-handed". Tolerance to many of the effects of amphetamine develops with prolonged and repeated use. Amphetamine presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of amphetamine most stimulants will have a reduced effect. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). It is removed excreted by the kidneys and only a small amount by hepatic enzymes. Prog. Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. [8], In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benzedrine. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. ISBN 9780071481274. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications |, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lisdexamfetamine Compared with d-Amphetamine in Healthy Subjects |, Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite |, Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of d rugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) |, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Dangerous poisoning. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887, but its psychostimulant effects were not discovered until 1929. PMC 3236098 Freely accessible. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches |. "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review". Stolerman IP (2010). Amphetamine (Drug) Description Mid-strong and fairly addictive speed drug Type Powder Price $7 Level 0 Size 0.5 Weight 0.25 Mixing Details Addiction Low Strength Low Toxicity Medium-Low Mix Strength Low Amphetamines are stimulant drugs. Postgrad. When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. PubChem Compound. When an object changes speed, it gets faster or … Cardiovascular system failures 3. ISBN 9780071481274. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. (1978). Ann. Jg. 42 (2): 205–233. ISBN 9780071624428. (2008). doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. They are somewhat comparable to. DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. Lisdexamfetamine is the same drug (dextroamphetamine) BUT is bound to an Amino acid L-Lysine and needs to be metabolized in order to convert it into useable D-Amphetamine, it takes time for this conversion to happen leading to a prolonged T-Max and C-max and more stable overall dosage and effects throughout the entire serum level. pp. A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). Rasmussen N (July 2006). Important information. Amphetamine is not approved for use in children less than 6 years of age, with the exception of Evekeo (approved for children age 3 and older). " Black beauty " was a drug street-name used in the '60s and '70s to refer to a pill of pharmaceutical amphetamine (aka speed). A powerful stimulant that keeps people alert, usually sold as an off-white or pinkish powder – that sometimes look like small crystals How it looks, tastes and smells How do people take it? [1][2] The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. PMID 22849208. Marihuana, also known as grass, ganja, weed or MJ. Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). No pharmacological use was found for amphetamine until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles resynthesized it. Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123. ISBN 9783540686989. PMID 16492800. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Amphetamine is a chiral compound. "Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia: Implications of the effects produced in brain vasculature and peripheral organs to forebrain neurotoxicity". All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. [47] A review on treatment for amphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. Independent research (e.g. Many of these effects are not life-threatening, but potential dangers exist fo… The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. In animal models that evaluate the neurotoxicity of AMPH and METH, it is quite clear that hyperthermia is one of the essential components necessary for the production of histological signs of dopamine terminal damage and neurodegeneration in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus." It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy. PMID 20997404. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1), CD003026-CD003026. 99-165). Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is used in all … (2005). 1216: 86–98. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. Temperature (Austin). New York: Oxford University Press. It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative Ephedrine, which had been purified two years previously by Nagayoshi Nagai. "Hyperthermia alone does not produce amphetamine-like neurotoxicity but AMPH and METH exposures that do not produce hyperthermia (≥40°C) are minimally neurotoxic. J. Dangerously high body temperatures 2. In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit. However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. "Chemical and Physical Properties". Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to arise from typical medical use.[44][45][46]. Dosages from TripSit Factsheets Amphetamine. Amfetamine (in straattaal ook wel speed, pep, snelle of belly genoemd) is een synthetisch psychofarmacon en drug.De dextro-isomeer van amfetamine (dextro-amfetamine) wordt voorgeschreven als therapie voor ADHD en narcolepsie.Het racemaat van amfetamine kent momenteel geen medicinale toepassingen in Nederland en wordt slechts recreatief gebruikt. It is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated, injected, or administered rectally. [16] The euphoric and locomotor-stimulating effects of amphetamine are dependent upon the magnitude and speed by which it increases synaptic dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum.[17]. It is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. 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