Koster, E. H., De Lissnyder, E., Derakshan, N., and De Raedt, R. (2011). Accordingly, a brief self-report measure – the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (the CCFQ) – was constructed. However, it was suggested that the control subscale might measure self-efficacy rather than cognitive flexibility (Johnco et al., 2014). Neurosci. Psychol. Ther. Brain Topogr. 1:59. doi: 10.1038/35036228, Monsell, S. (2003). inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. J. Abnorm. The negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Version (PANAS-X; Watson and Clark, 1999) was used to assess the intensity of state negative mood immediately post-TSST. A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type card-sorting problem. New Ideas Psychol. Biochem. However, the ways through which these abilities might be expressed in stressful situations is not fully understood. J. Cogn. Total scores were calculated by summing across all 21 items (α = 0.92). Cogn. The stress appraisal measure (SAM): a multidimensional approach to cognitive appraisal. Stressor appraisals are followed by the selection of coping methods to contend with the stressor directly and/or regulate emotional responses (Folkman, 2013). Zaehringer, J., Falquez, R., Schubert, A. L., Nees, F., and Barnow, S. (2018). J. Behav. Finally, the CCFQ was intended to measure trait-like abilities which can, however, be diminished following chronic or prolonged stressor exposure. doi: 10.1038/nrn1201. 13, 1043–1048. Thus, it was hypothesized that higher CCFQ scores would be associated with a less pronounced cortisol changes in response to the TSST challenge. The appraisal and coping flexibility dimension of the CCFQ assessed an individual’s perceived ability to engage in a set of deliberate effortful behaviors that can facilitate a comprehensive and favorable appraisal of a stressful situation as well as the selection of a broad range of coping strategies. To be sure, the CCFQ was not developed as a diagnostic instrument, but instead was intended to compliment behavioral paradigms in determining common as well as different aspects of cognitive control and flexibility that are disturbed among individuals with depressive pathology. Acad. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress. Res. You are currently offline. doi: 10.1162/NETN_a_00010. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›. (2010). Low cognitive control over emotion = 1 SD below the mean, high cognitive control over emotion = 1 SD above the mean. To our knowledge, there are current no self-report measures which directly assess cognitive control in stressful situations. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. Thus, in the context of a stressful situation, cognitive flexibility might be observed through the ability to generate multiple coping strategies, and to flexibly adjust them according to changing stressor demands. |, Study 1. This, in turn, might lead to greater difficulty engaging in flexible behaviors, resulting in more automatic or reflexive responses and difficulties in regulating emotions. Brain Cogn. Participants were recruited to participate in a survey called “Coping with Stress” using websites, such as Facebook, Kijiji and Craig’s List, and through word of mouth. 139, 81–132. 19, 468–478. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Neuroscience 345, 193–202. Upon completion of the study, participants received written debriefing and were compensated with course credit. Mood disorders and allostatic load. Post-cognitive behavioral therapy, a significant decrease was observed in Beck Depression Inventory-II, Mental Defeat Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores. Based on these analyses, 26 items were eliminated from the initial 44-item pool due to low factor loadings (<0.40) on the two primary factors, were redundant, or were not consistent with the constructs represented by the two primary factors. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. Affect. Moreover, although the present findings are correlational, these results raise the possibility that lower levels of cognitive control and flexibility might be associated with a tendency to interpret stressful situations in a negative perspective. Perceived stressfulness, however, was related to greater negative affect (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) and, although not quite statistically significant, elevated cortisol AUCi (r = 0.30, p = 0.06). 9:2219. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (CCFQ), Study 2. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2015.07.003, Davis, R. N., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). A parallel analysis (Zwick and Velicer, 1986), in which the actual eigenvalues were compared to average eigenvalues derived from a series of randomly generated data sets (in this case 5000 samples), further supported the presence of two factors. Arch. Neurosci. Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Med. A PCA with Promax rotation was conducted to determine whether the factor structure of the final (18-item) CCFQ observed in the student sample matched that of a community sample. Acad. As shown in Table 2, both subscales of the CCFQ were significantly correlated with nearly all validation measures of cognitive control and (in)flexibility. Exp. Brain Cogn. Rather, these results indicate that a proportion of the relationship between CCFQ scores and depressive symptoms is accounted for by differences in stressor appraisals and the endorsement of particular coping methods. Type of Instrument. 9, 242–249. doi: 10.1080/10463281003765323, Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., and Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807041106, Logue, S. F., and Gould, T. J. A., and Yim, I. S. (2010). 38, 404–411. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.09.016, Rolls, E. T. (2000). Because the present version of CCFQ assesses “trait” cognitive control/flexibility, it was not possible to determine whether individuals actually engaged in these behaviors during the stressor session, although trait measures have been reported to predict responses to acute stressors (e.g., Zoccola et al., 2010; Stewart et al., 2013). 18, 176–186. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory Instrument Development and Estimates of Reliability and Validity. To evaluate construct validity, a comparison was made between the final (18-item) version of the CCFQ and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010). Cognitive control and brain resources in major depression: an fMRI study using the n-back task. This questionnaire is a short self-re- ported instrument which contains 20 questions. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003) is a 10-item questionnaire assessing individual differences in the habitual use of two emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. 7, 134–140. Sci. Cognitive inflexibility and over-attention to detail: The Italian validation of the DFlex Questionnaire in patients with eating disorders. (2016). Behav. Not surprisingly, most studies that have assessed stressor effects on cognitive control and flexibility have done so through neuropsychological or behavioral measures (Liston et al., 2009; Compton et al., 2013; Shields et al., 2016; Goldfarb et al., 2017). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (1989). (2015). Annu. Indeed, this raises the possibility that both measures can be used to assess the same processes and administered in the same or similar contexts. Whereas the alternatives facet of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory more directly measures the tendency to generate multiple explanations for difficult situations, the appraisal and coping flexibility dimension of the CCFQ assesses the use of reappraisals aimed at regulating negative thoughts and emotions, and difficulties in doing so. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire The scoring of the 36-item CERQ questionnaire is again straightforward. (2003). doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.03.007, Colzato, L. S., Van Wouwe, N. C., Lavender, T. J., and Hommel, B. The present study describes the development of the CCFQ as well as the factor structure and reliability of this measure in both a student and a community sample. In contrast, the appraisal and coping flexibility component measured more complex processes related to changes of appraisals (e.g., approaching a situation from multiple perspectives, and regulating emotions through reappraisal processes) and the generation of a broad range of coping strategies. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.12.003, Ferguson, M. A., Anderson, J. S., and Spreng, R. N. (2017). Specifically, the CCFQ explicitly and directly focused on the (negative) cognitive and emotional states elicited by a stressful situation, and the cognitive control processes required to regulate these responses. All items are rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly Agree). Brain Cogn. Cognition 174, 94–102. In the context of stressful experiences, the reported studies examined processes related to cognitive control and flexibility, emotional regulation and depressive symptoms. Sci. These findings suggest that the CCFQ captures aspects of cognitive control and of cognitive flexibility that might be relevant to stressful situations. Exp. 42, 1373–1382. Together, these preliminary factor analyses and reliability assessments suggest that the CCFQ exhibits a stable two-factor structure in a student and community sample. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. For example, it is possible that an individual can be flexible in certain situations (e.g., multitasking) but not in others (e.g., emotional regulation). In Study 3 (N = 47 females), lower scores on the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ predicted elevated negative affect and an exacerbated cortisol response following an acute psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Stress regulation and cognitive control: Evidence relating cortisol reactivity and neural responses to errors. This said, it is important to acknowledge the high correlation between the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ, which suggests a high degree of overlap between the two measures and potential redundancy. J. Clin. the cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) is based on a seven-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 7 (“strongly agree”). However, as the present study included only females, it is remains uncertain whether a similar pattern of results would be observed amongst males. 2. 31, 271–327. The SAM and SCOPE assess the ‘content’ of an appraisal (e.g., levels of threat or control) or a coping strategy (i.e., frequency of endorsing emotional expression), respectively. This suggests that the CCFQ taps into repetitive (negative) thinking that often accompanies symptoms of depression. Multiple mediations analyses examining the direct and indirect effects of CCFQ subscale scores on depressive symptoms through stressor appraisals and coping style. Psychol. Sci. Cognitive control interventions for depression: a systematic review of findings from training studies. Thus, we determined whether individual differences in cognitive control/flexibility moderated the effects of an acute stressor on cortisol changes provoked by the TSST (Kirschbaum et al., 1993). Table 1 (Student sample) presents the factor structure of the 18-item CCFQ as well as the eigenvalues and percentage of variance accounted for by each of the two factors. (2017). Psychol. Likewise, the three-factor alternative model which included the residual correlations failed to converge to a unique solution due to a non-positive definite latent variable covariance matrix and thus fit statistics are unavailable. Similarly, in the context of emotional situations, the ability to flexibly attend to and disengage from emotional aspects of a situation or a stimulus, termed ‘affective flexibility,’ might also reflect cognitive control and flexibility processes (Malooly et al., 2013). Received: 20 March 2018; Accepted: 26 October 2018;Published: 19 November 2018. Pers. In addition to their characterization as aspects of executive functions, various behaviors are believed to represent cognitive control and flexibility or, at least, be associated with these constructs. The fundamental factor in the expression of these abilities is highly dependent on context, including the characteristics and demands of the situation. J. Exp. Being a relatively brief (20-item) questionnaire, it understandably does not capture all instances of cognitive flexibility (or of cognitive control) that may be important to stressful situations. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.04.005, Joormann, J., and Gotlib, I. H. (2010). In line with the data presented in Table 2, the CCFQ was no longer linked to reflective coping and expressive suppression (Table 3). doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348, Gruner, P., and Pittenger, C. (2017). Of particular significance is that the pattern of standardized factor loadings for each factor derived from the hypothesized model (see Table 5) replicates the loading pattern observed in Study 1. Rev. Although inspection of eigenvalues and scree plot for the 44 items suggested a 7-factor solution, only the first 2 factors explained greater than 10% of the total variance across items (Factor 1 = 38.11% and Factor 2 = 11.23%). doi: 10.1210/edrv.21.1.0389, Shields, G. S., Sazma, M. A., and Yonelinas, A. P. (2016). Disord. The hypothesized model provided a marginal fit to the data, χ2 (112) = 223.693, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.958, and RMSEA = 0.052. A PCA with Promax rotation (since the factors were expected to be correlated) was conducted to explore the factor structure of the preliminary 44-item CCFQ and to select the final items for this measure. Natl. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x, Nyhus, E., and Barceló, F. (2009). The nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies are measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5, with scores being obtained by calculating the mean scores belonging to a particular subscale. Psychol., 19 November 2018 RG was solely responsible for data acquisition. The ob-tained data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and multivariate regression analysis. Dennis, J. P., and Vander Wal, J. S. (2010). Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. defined as the ability to switch one’s thinking (cognition) (or train of thought) as an adaptation to the demands of stimuli 4, 829–839. TABLE 8. (2011). (1998–2017). Psychosocial stress reversibly disrupts prefrontal processing and attentional control. Emotion regulation in depression: relation to cognitive inhibition. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.08.006, Ionescu, T. (2012). The influence of cognitive flexibility on treatment outcome and cognitive restructuring skill acquisition during cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety and depression in older adults: Results of a pilot study. B. Similarly, the relation between appraisal and coping flexibility and depressive symptoms was mediated by problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, but not avoidant coping (Table 8). Control and flexibility were operationalized through statements reflecting shifting, inhibition, updating, including “shifting my attention,” “ignoring,” “setting aside,” “generating multiple …”, “thinking of several ways …”, “reframing,” and “re-evaluating.”. Promax-rotated, Principal Components Analysis of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. The CCFQ was modeled after conventional behavioral measures of cognitive control and cognitive flexibility and assesses an individual’s perceived ability to exhibit control over their thoughts and behavior in a stressful situation. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1998.83.3.783. Child. Results: There is a statistically significant relationship between flexibility in coping with stress and its dimensions, and cognitive flexibility and its dimensions, in the examined group of firefighters. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.107, Gläscher, J., Adolphs, R., Damasio, H., Bechara, A., Rudrauf, D., Calamia, M., et al. Since the data in the present study were cross-sectional, mediation analyses were not intended to address causality. Zero-order correlations between the CCFQ and validation measures of cognitive control and cognitive (in)flexibility. Pharmacol. Neuropsychol. 95, 107–113. However, being a self-report measure, the CCFQ was not designed to assess ‘hot’ executive functions per se, but instead focused on an individual’s perceived levels of cognitive functioning and the implications for emotional regulation and coping effectiveness. FIGURE 1. Psychosom. The direct effect of cognitive control over emotion on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 6 appraisal dimensions, c’ = -0.469, SE = 0.044, p < 0.001. This study was restricted to females because of their elevated propensity to depression relative to that seen in males. The neural and genetic basis of executive function: attention, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. Johnco, C., Wuthrich, V. M., and Rapee, R. M. (2014). The coping flexibility questionnaire: development and initial validation in patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. (1999). Cogn. Psychometric Properties of a Russian Version of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI-R), Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI-I) among Iranian University Students, Development and validation of the Japanese version of cognitive flexibility scale. The cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) was developed to be a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility necessary for individuals to successfully challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.08.007, Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., and Heim, C. (2009). N. Y. Acad. Cognitive control processes, including cognitive reappraisal, not only play a central role in emotion regulation, but might also be associated with neuroendocrine and brain functioning (Ochsner et al., 2012; Compton et al., 2013; Denson et al., 2014; Silvers et al., 2015). Nevertheless, this result suggests that three substantive factors do not underlie the CCFQ. Answer the questions as to how true they are for you. As predicted, the TSST elicited greater negative affect than the control condition (b = 37.17, SE = 9.43, p < 0.001), but this effect depended on differences of cognitive control over emotion, ΔR2 = 0.08, F(1,42) = 0.7.35, p < 0.01. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131305, Grant, D. A., and Berg, E. A. The Stressor Condition × Cognitive Control over Emotion interaction accounted for considerable variance in cortisol response, ΔR2 = 0.08, F(1,35) = 3.67, p = 0.06. 152, 19–27. Given the correlation between the components of the CCFQ, in the moderation analyses, when assessing the interactive effects of one component of the CCFQ (e.g., cognitive control over emotion), the second component (e.g., appraisal and coping flexibility) was treated as a covariate. The SCOPE is a 50-item measure assessing the frequency of endorsement of 13 coping strategies. ESEM was used to confirm the structure of the CCFQ. Hayes, A. F. (2017). 57, 55–64. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23904, Morton, J. Self-reported ethnicities included Caucasian (660%, n = 31), South Asian (2.1%, n = 1), Arab/West Asian (6.4%, n = 3), South East Asian (2.1%, n = 1), Hispanic (2.1%, n = 1), Black (4.3%, n = 2), Asian (2.1%, n = 1), Aboriginal (2.1%, n = 1), and other (4.3%, n = 2). (2003). Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.048. 3.2.3. U.S.A. 109, 14681–14686. The cognitive control over emotion component was more closely related to the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas as the appraisal and coping flexibility dimension exhibited a stronger association with the Coping Flexibility Questionnaire. A systematic review. It was also of interest to determine how individual differences in these abilities can serve as resilience or risk factors for depressive pathology. Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. For example, T1 represents the length of time between the collection of cortisol sample 1 (Cort1) and sample 2 (Cort2). The effects of acute stress on core executive functions: a meta-analysis and comparison with cortisol. Res. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9740-1, Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Ther. TABLE 4. Mental flexibility is considered part of executive funcions , which are the general mental functions that help us to cordinate thought and action. Reliability was demonstrated by a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.918. Systems of coping associated with dysphoria, anxiety and depressive illness: a multivariate profile perspective. The purpose of the present research was to explore ways in which cognitive control and cognitive flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations that are not readily captured through behavioral tasks. The present findings suggest that cognitive flexibility totally mediates the association between ELS and habitual behaviors. Dev. Thus, greater cognitive control over emotion, or the ability to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states, might not only serve to regulate emotions effectively, but might also play a role in regulating the cortisol response associated with a stressful situation. Rev. Neurosci. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. Psychosocial laboratory stressor and later verbal recall of the CCFQ in relation to stressor appraisals and coping style research! 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