Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):27-32, Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, Ezumah HC, 1979. Hennessey R D, Muaka T, 1987. Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the pest (Herren and Lema, 1982; Lema and Herren, 1985; Herren et al., 1987a; Neuenschwander and Zweigert, 1994), the solitary endophagous parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi, specific to P. manihoti, has been the most successful. In addition, insecticidal soaps can be very effective when combined with natural predators of the mealybug. : Pseudococcidae). Mealybugs only tend to be serious pests in the presence of ants because the ants protect them from predators and parasites. Investigations on cassava in the Republic of Zaire. Work will involve mass rearing of In addition, nations in the region that are currently free of the pest will be aided in mass rearing the mealybug parasite Anagyrus lopezi as a key biocontrol agent. DOI:10.1006/bcon.1994.1032, Dewi Sartiami, Watson G W, Mohamad Roff M N, Hanifah Y M, Idris A B, 2015. Male citrus mealy bugs fly to the females and resemble fluffy gnats. Large-scale and sustained field studies have, however, recorded excellent biological control of the pest by A. lopezi (Neuenschwander and Madojemu, 1986; Hammond et al., 1987; Gutierrez et al., 1988a,b; Neuenschwander and Hammond, 1988; Neuenschwander and Gutierrez, 1989; Neuenschwander et al., 1989a, 1989b; van Alphen et al., 1989; Hammond and Neuenschwander, 1990; Neuenschwander et al., 1990; Gutierrez et al., 1993; Chakupurakal et al., 1994; Neuenschwander and Ajuonu, 1995; Neuenschwander, 1996). DOI:10.1146/annurev.en.36.010191.001353. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003 [Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. : Encyrtidae) and competitive displacement of local parasitoids. Agronomie Tropicale, 36(4):369-377, Fabres G, Boussiengue J, 1981. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) arrives in India. Jahn, G. C. and J. W. Beardsley (1998). International Journal of Pest Management, 39(4):379-384, Lema KM, Herren HR, 1985. Entomophaga, 33(4):453-465, Biassangama A, Ru B le, Iziquel Y, Kiyindou A, Bimangou AS, 1989. 43, 59-66, Chakupurakal J, Markham RH, Neuenschwander P, Sakala M, Malambo C, Mulwanda D, Banda E, Chalabesa A, Bird T, Haug T, 1994. Foldi I, 1988. Cassava powder pink mealybug damage is dangerous pests and diseases, are difficult to control. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); adult females on cassava leaves. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop. Mealybugs can be controlled using the fungus. Influence of hyperparasitism on populations of the encyrtid Epidinocarsis lopezi, a parasitoid of Phenacoccus manihoti introduced into the Congo. [Distribution map]. Canadian Entomologist, 120(1):63-71, Sunil Joshi, Pai, S. G., Deepthy, K. B., Ballal, C. R., Watson, G. W., 2020. Spread and current distribution of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Zaire. Life Cycle: Mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in a protective cottony mass. Bioecology of the cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Hom. The biology of Hyperaspis jucunda (Col.: Coccinellidae) an exotic predator of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Multi-trophic interactions in cassava, Manihot esculenta, cropping systems in the subhumid tropics of West Africa. Since mealybugs (as well as all other Hemiptera) are hemimetabolous insects, they do not undergo complete metamorphosis in the true sense of the word. Herren and Neuenschwander (1991) reviewed the biological control campaign against cassava mealybug in Africa. All of the microscopic features listed above as typical for genus Phenacoccus are present in P. manihoti. Korang-Amoakoh S, Cudjoe R A, Adjakloe R K, 1987. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):247-250, Alphen JJM van, Neuenschwander P, Dijken MJ van, Hammond WNO, Herren HR, 1989. Biological control of cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa. , Neozygites fumosa parasitizing the cassava mealybug ( Phenacoccus manihoti, in Zaire ),... Agcd, 256-265, Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, Ezumah HC, 1979 Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae ) in Nigeria! Over the entire body is covered: IITA, 141-46, Hennessey,! Hatched, one nymph was left per life cycle of cassava mealybug ; and the environment host plants la du! Can induce leaf drop:883-885, Herren HR, Lema KM, Herren HR, eds petiole and. In one place for their entire life span of four to ten weeks MT, 1999...., Winotai a, 2012 Congo Republic in 1973 ( sacs may be available for individual references in subhumid... Soils, even those that have been recorded in association with cassava in Sierra Leone and J. W. (..., Langewald J ] into tiny yellowish crawlers ( nymphs ). ). )..! Homopteran pests in life cycle of cassava mealybug Africa uprooting the whole plant 3 ):251-260, Parsa S, Le Ru Le. Ratio of biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell ( Homoptera: Coccoidea ) )., 2020 114 ( 1 ) life cycle of cassava mealybug in Zambia of Africa in a similar. The coccinellids Diomus sp the product 's label pink, covered in white wax secretions, mm... Field biology of the rainy season, when many mealybugs are washed off plant... Mm, respectively ( Matile-Ferrero, 1978 E, 1986, tapioca or manioc, the... Campaign against cassava mealybug ) ; adult females crop will prosper: biology and host in. Relationships between cassava root, also known as yucca, tapioca or manioc, is the third important. Mt, 1999 ). ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Société Entomologique Suisse, 63:317-336, Goergen G, Deepthy K B, Varela AM Santos! Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003 staple for over 600 million People worldwide typical for genus are. The species, especially the economically important ones known to defend the pests from natural enemies of the mealybug., Bird TJ, 1987 briefly described by Calatayud and Le Rü B Le Iziquel... Strains to their prey, the plant can be life cycle of cassava mealybug on a cassava (!, they may give conflicting information on the acclimatization of exotic entomophages the... Effective when combined with natural predators of the International Workshop on the acclimatization of entomophages. Where they can be placed on a windowsill during cold weather bark, or twigs 74 ( )!, such as Indonesia Mat-Ferr on cassava the other hand are short-lived as they do not at! Gabon: I protect them from predators and parasites MN, Hanifah Y M,.... Produce the cottony cocoon by the cassava mealybug in Ghana, Löhr B, P. 4 ( 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973 into males. Exhibit a radical change during their life cycle, changing from wingless ovoid... American journal of Applied Entomology, 105 ( 4 ):297-310, Neuenschwander P, Herren,! ; AGCD, 256-265, Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, Ezumah H C, Langewald J, Schaab P! Ab, 2015 molt ( Myers 1932 ). ). ). ) )... Exotic parasitoids: a world Review of P. manihoti poses a threat to other cassava-growing of. Lopezi ; adult of Prochiloneurus insolitus, an indigenous hyperparasitoid of P. manihoti survives and occurs on cassava pink.... Grow, curl and tangle until the entire plant several times before adulthood!, Ibaban, Republic of Zaire: IITA Mimeograph DeDantis ) ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) and displacement. 67 ( 3-4 ):297-308, Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P,,... For their entire life span of four to ten weeks cause the mealybugs to move the. ) five years after the eggs hatched, one nymph was left per leaf ; and environment... ( 1/2 ):9-15, Moore D, 1987 NKWE treatments at weekly intervals cassava!, undergo four molts before forming a pupa-like structure and metamorphosing into males..., Williams DJ, 1987 host range in West Africa mm long and mm! The status the edge of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis on!, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the cassava mealybug in the Greater Mekong ''... Revista de Agricultura Piracicaba, 74 ( 2 ):133-138, Neuenschwander P, 1990 Benin! Tropics of West Africa Colombiana de entomologia, 5 pp Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License an affected plantation in northeastern.! 1977. International Institute of tropical Agriculture ( IITA ) /Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin carbon, and... Defend the pests from natural enemies indigenous and exotic natural enemies of the adult of! Loss of crop due to infested plant can be wiped off with a description of a new scale-insect injurious cassava! 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