One point to note is that human language does not necessarily need to divide into different forms. The term re-standardization refers to the ways in which a language may be reshaped by its speakers and writers. Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason. For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). Vol. This essentially re-emphasises that language standardisation is a process, not an end-result. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a The process of standardisation involves both ‘ruler-makers’ and ‘rule-breakers’; the former makes the rules for spelling and pronunciation, in addition to selecting/eliminating the meaning of commonly used words. Milroy, James. British Library, n.d.. http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/find-out-more/received-pronunciation/. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. Authority In Language. Deumert, Ana. James and Lesley Milroy expressed that language standardisation does not symbolise an actual end-product, but rather, a significant process with no completion. by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. Fairclough, Norman. Secondly, the language then gains prestige within the society for being associated with those of high social status. It was no doubt a sensible decision as the younger generation of writers, speakers, language educators etc. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Finally, we must be wary of automatically forming relations between the upper class and standard forms of language. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. Mayr, Andrea. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. Linguists commonly use language variety (or simply variety) as a cover term for any of the overlapping subcategories of a language, including dialect, register, jargon, and … Ten years after the proposal was passed, efforts to implement the standard language was assessed and the results were as follow: In overall, it is evident that the majority believed in the good of a standardised language in Basque. The latter, in contrast, are then stigmatized for using non-standard dialects. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. Routledge, 2000. Prof Feng’s presentation put this kind of standardization policy in context, explaining that minority language standardization itself follows a standard (and not necessarily responsive) procedure in China. Overall, the whole process aims to create a ‘melting pot’ environment, homogenising a certain culture that comes with the language. Crystal, David. Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. Unaware of the existence of such slang, fans and music critics alike were quick to deem the song complete ‘gibberish’, despite its lyrics possessing proper meaning and semantics (Thomas). Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. 2010. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. Critics. In line with the said, the stands of several linguists about the a/s phenomena are presented as the Then a number of theoretical frameworks for the study of communication are discussed: Speech Act theory, Conversation Analysis, and theories concerned with ... Natural language facilitates communication in several other respects, be- Variability is a fact of life for almost all languages. Accessed 6 March 2017. However, as the use of ‘h’ were valued by the northern Basque writers and speakers, Mitxelena saw the importance of its inclusion in the standard language. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. Language unification, standardization and corpus development imply a sophisticated national or collective effort which has to deal with philosophical, political — and technical — issues. Modern trends for standardization Current orthography represents two major centers of standardization: British and American English. Deumert (2004) states that linguistically- oriented approach to language standardization have often concentrated on the identification of the regional and/or social dialects which form the phonological, morphological, Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. Is the process of development of a standard for written and/or oral language It occurs in a specific manner that depends on the community and the social, historical and geographic aspects involved. would be the ones to spread the use of this standard language. Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. Software languages will evolve over time just like software applications do. Dudley, Leon. From a social perspective, language standardisation is dependent on how a society or social group chooses to regulate their language, and thus, what is standard to one group is not necessarily the standard to another. An Example of Standardization and Divergence: Latin, The Creation and Enforcement of Language Standards, Definition and Examples of Acrolects in Language, What You Should Know About Creole Language, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Codification in English. Following, the society must then express a desire for uniformity by filtering out any irregularities and establishing a consistent communication system between individuals. A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). Received Pronunciation. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. Another quality of a good assessment is standardization. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. 3.3 The Process of Language Standardization Standardization is a necessary and vital process in any language. Actually, any language varies according to , the nature of the society, what kind of people, and their attitudes. S. Rayjashree of the Project on Modernization and Language Development at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, for what I … Journal of, Thomas, Tiffany. Standardization focuses on the product creation process, operations of businesses, technology in use, and how specific compulsory processes are instituted or carried out. Hence, the dispersal of a language must be credited to its respective speakers—people, and their practices and customs—and not the core of language itself. Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. Located in northern Spain, the community saw themselves as autonomous given their diverse historical roots and cultural groups within the country. Therefore, language standardisation is never stagnant or complete, but will continue revising itself as long as the language is still in use. With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. But that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars division! Within the Country, an open question as to how much, if any standardization! Make important decisions acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication assimilation..., ed the people ( Fairclough 203-4 ), i.e: Structural features of this new-found utility settings Mayr! In 800, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena s. 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